ABSTRACT

Brandy Gillmore has spent over 16 years researching the mind-body connection and has been able to create breakthrough healing results and instant pain relief by teaching individuals to rewire specific neural pathways. (Details about this research are included in the empirical data section below).

To date, most well-respected and much-needed studies on stress have focused on physical components, such as the autonomic nervous system and biochemistry of the body.

The goal of this paper is to expand on the topic of “stress” by focusing on the energy of stress—and explain how it can impact the energy (biophoton signaling, intensity, and frequency) of the body which, in turn, can create dysfunction in or break down the cells of the body, which can lead to pain or illness. 

Additionally, this hypothesis can provide a scientific explanation to help bridge the gap between allopathic medicine and CAM (Complementary Alternative Medicine) therapies. 

 

KEYWORDS: mind-body healing; biophotons; energy medicine; CAM therapies; free radicals

 

  1. Introduction 

 

The conventional biomedical model is in the process of evolving. Over the past several years, it has been expanding to a more integrative medical model. The old medical paradigm has historically been centered on molecular reductionism and focused more on genetics, molecules synthesized by proteins, and a foundation that everything in the body can be explained by physical components. The new integrative model that is emerging is beginning to include that which is beyond the molecular approach, including biophotons, the biofield, and energy medicine. 

There has been significant expansion around research on biophotons emanating from the body. Countless studies suggest that biophotons do play a vital role in the signaling throughout the body and even “the basic functioning of cells.”

 

[1]  

Further, there are a variety of different ways that this energy (biophotons or the biofield) is being considered through complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies which utilize a variety of different modalities to improve the energy flow of the body. These are noted in Table I below. 

In 2000, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine divided CAM modalities into five categories[2]:

  • Alternative medical systems
  • Mind-body interventions
  • Biologically based treatments
  • Manipulative and body-based methods
  • Energy therapies

 

Chiropractic Medicine

Biofield therapies (Reiki, Therapeutic Touch, etc.)

Bioelectromagnetic Medicine

Acupuncture and Acupressure

Meditation

EFT (Emotional Freedom Technique)

Homeopathy

Hypnosis

Table I. Common CAM practices

 

While many CAM therapies are available in our culture, they still have not been fully accepted and integrated into mainstream medicine, as they challenge the traditional biomedical paradigm of molecular reductionism and have limited scientific understanding that could validate their use. 

Even when it comes to mind-body healing, it is well-known that stress can impact the physical body; this has been proven by one study after another, yet there are still so many unknowns about how it works. One recent study documented the connection between Type 2 diabetes and loneliness. In it, the author noted: “The current study highlights loneliness as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes for the first time. Further work is required to understand the potential causal nature of this relationship, as well as underlying mechanisms.”[3]

The goal of this hypothesis is to do exactly that, i.e., to share the foundational understanding that has helped thousands create tangible healing results. Further, my hope is that this hypothesis will help provide a greater understanding as to why CAM therapies work in the instances where they are effective. With this logical and scientific understanding, I believe it will enable mind-body medicine as well as all CAM therapies to further advance and become more accepted and integrated into the mainstream medical system. 

 

1.1. Foundational Background for Mind-Body Medicine

One of the early breakthroughs for mind-body medicine in the scientific medical model was the formation of Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), a branch that studies the link between the mind and health (or more literally the study between psychological processes, the nervous system, and the immune system). PNI was officially formed in 1975, when Robert Ader and Nicholas Cohen showed scientific evidence that the nervous system could affect the immune system. 

Although the term PNI is relatively new, the awareness that the mind affects the physical body goes back thousands of years. It is even stated in the Bible, approximately 3000 years ago, that: “A merry heart doeth good like a medicine: but a broken spirit drieth the bones.” (Proverbs 17:22) So the concept that the mind affects the health of the physical body, and that a “broken spirit” can even result in death, is not new. However, given that science has proven that our thoughts really can kill us—through an illness such as broken heart syndrome, or an event such as literally being scared to death—we know that our thoughts really are powerful. Even the emotion of boredom has been linked to increased death rates.[4]  This scientific proof allows for advancement. Although there have been countless noteworthy developments since the official formation of PNI, much remains unexplained. The goal of this hypothesis is to address some of these unanswered questions in the area of mind-body medicine as well as to integrate the importance of energy and CAM therapies and contribute to the advancement of our medical system. 

 

1.2. Foundational Background of Energy Medicine

Although labeled differently across multiple cultures, the concept of energy and its role in healing has existed for thousands of years, including, prana in Ayurveda, qi (chi) in Chinese medicine, and ki in Japanese medicine. Even ancient Egyptians believed that illness was caused by evil spirits that blocked “channels” in the body. Based on this belief, they looked for ways to unblock these channels to facilitate healing. Much of the foundational practice of energy medicine stems from metaphysical and spiritual beliefs. 

In Western culture, energy medicine is a relatively new concept which has not yet been broadly accepted into our conventional medical system, mostly because it does not fit into the standard, physically oriented paradigm. And while the notion of working with the patient’s energy may not be well-received in Western medicine, the medical model recognizes that the physical body has “electricity.” Well-established is the understanding that when the electricity of the body is “off” (as in the radical loss of electrolytes), it can be fatal.[5] Additionally, Western biomedicine regularly checks the electricity of the brain with an electroencephalogram [EEG] and examines electrical fields from the heart via electrocardiogram [ECG]. Therefore, while we can see that electricity of the body is well rooted into our medical system, energy medicine is not. 

Energy and “universal life energy,” also known as Reiki in Japanese culture, have been used mainly by energy healing practitioners, many of whom maintain that disease starts with an energetic imbalance, such as a blockage or other irregularity in the energy flow through the body. Modern CAM systems like chiropractic, osteopathy, and homeopathy are also founded on the principle of a vital force of life energy. Therapeutics in these practices involve restoring or rebalancing the energy to promote healing. 

While many professionals using these practices look at the whole of the energy of the body (commonly called the “biofield”), or the blockage of energy or energy centers (commonly referred to as “chakras”), this hypothesis looks less at the energy as a whole, but more specifically at biophotons. Biophotons (from the Greek words βίος meaning “life” and φῶς meaning “light”), are, by definition, photons of light in the UV and low visible light range produced by a biological system, such as the human body.

 

1.3. Foundational Background of Biophotons

Alexander Gurwitsch, a Soviet biologist and medical scientist, discovered the biophoton in the 1920s. Through Gurwitsch’s discovery—later corroborated by additional research—we know that cells are literally emanating light energy.  Gurwitsch’s finding of this light energy was initially met with skepticism but was later confirmed by German biophysicist and cancer radiotherapist Fritz-Albert Popp, who coined the term “biophoton” and was responsible for much of its early research. 

Popp found that biophotons denote multiple frequencies originating from DNA, where they are concentrated in the DNA of the cell nucleus. Additionally, light can be stored in the DNA and released periodically over time. Popp also determined that biophotons communicate with all the body’s cells instantly in a wave of energy.[6] Research on biophotons continues, and it is now recognized that all living cells continuously emit ultraweak biophotons. 

 

  1. Gillmore’s Mind-Body-Energy and Health Hypothesis

 

My hypothesis: I propose that negative thoughts and emotions can trigger the release of increased biophoton emissions in specific parts of the brain that can negatively impact the physical body and lead to illness. 

For this hypothesis, there are two key factors to consider: 

  1. How biophotons play a role in cell damage which can lead to illness.
  2. How the mind-body-energy connection and specific location(s) of biophotons in the body can lead to specific illnesses. 

 

2.1. How Biophotons Play a Role in Cell Damage That Can Lead to Illness

It is well-known that various types of photons, such as radiation, can damage the cells of the body and lead to illnesses. This does not mean the damage is immediate; case in point is the extended amount of time it generally takes for damage to occur due to sun exposure. Research has shown that short lengths of time in the sun are healthy for your body, but prolonged exposure to the sun’s UVA or UVB rays can lead to sunburns or skin damage. Similarly, I propose that under certain conditions of prolonged exposure, the body’s own biophotons can damage the cells of the body and lead to illness and disease in specific parts of the body.

I propose that part of the reason it is possible for biophotons to provide both positive and negative effects is due to the variation in the frequency, wavelength, and energy of biophotons. In fact, studies have shown that the intensity of biophotons is in direct correlation with brainwave and neural activity.[7] Further, when it comes to intensity of biophotons, according to Bókkon, et al,[8] the intensity is much higher inside the cells and neurons. Knowing that the intensity of biophotons is higher inside the cells and neurons is important. I propose that when a person is consciously or unconsciously experiencing stress (and more specifically a negative emotion) this negative emotion triggers neural activity which influences the intensity, frequency, and amount of biophotons being emitted—and that exposure to these specific biophotons, if ongoing, can negatively impact the physical body in a variety of ways.

When it comes to photons in general, it is well known that they do, in fact, have the ability to interact with electrons. With regard to physical matter, consider Einstein’s photoelectric effect and/or photoconductivity. With regard to energetic body activity, consider the well-known fact that ionizing radiation can affect the physical body. Thus, it has clearly been proven that photons have the ability to interact with electrons and that they can damage the physical body. Interestingly, we have bodies that are made up of electrons that are emitting biophotons and we can also see that missing electrons (free-radical oxidative stress) have been linked to illness. Further, research has shown that there is a correlation between biophotons and free radicals so much so that there are some studies that have even used UPE (Ultraweak Biophoton Emission) as a “marker of the oxidant status of biological systems.”[9]

I propose that there is more than just a correlation between biophotons and free radicals and that in fact, one is playing a role in creating the other. Specifically, stress, both conscious and subconscious, impacts the rate and frequency at which neurons are firing, which in turn impact the biophotons so that the biophotons change in frequency, intensity, and/or wavelength and become energized in a way that is incorrect for the body. These incorrectly charged biophotons play an important role in the creation of free radicals and are a hidden culprit in the breakdown of the body that can lead to illness. 

 

2.2. Breakdown of the Physical Body

In current studies on biophotons, many researchers suspect that biophotons are being used for signaling purposes within the body as well as helping with the basic functioning of the cells. [10] I do agree with these statements and that there are multiple health-enhancing functions to biophotons. I also propose that there are several ways that incorrectly charged biophotons can negatively affect the health of the physical body and that the creation of free radicals may be one of those ways. 

By definition, a free radical is a molecule with one or more unpaired electrons in its outer shell (i.e., a molecule that has lost an electron). This is an instance where I both align with and diverge from current thinking. Current scientific evidence has shown a correlation between cells damaged by free radicals and nearly every major illness, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, Alzheimer’s, and diabetes. Therefore, the correlation has been proven. While I do agree that free radicals are an important marker, I differ in my views on the origin/means of creation of free radicals. Past research attributes much of the formation of free radicals to things like toxins, pollutants, and regular metabolic processes,[11] however, I do not believe that free radical formation is a part of the “regular metabolic process.” I propose that there is more going on than meets the eye and that intensely and/or incorrectly charged biophotons play a role in creating a large percentage of the free radicals found in the body. This is just one way that biophotons could impact the health of the body. 

Additionally, I propose that intense and/or prolonged exposure to biophotons could also damage photoreceptors within the cells of the body. Despite common thought, research has shown that photoreceptors are not limited just to the eyes but are also located in the skin and hair, and further, research on biophotons suggests that all of our cells are using, and even communicating via, biophotons.[12] I propose that much like intense photons from the sun can damage the cones and retina in the eye if one stares at the sun, similarly, certain intense or prolonged biophoton activity can damage the photoreceptors of cells, thus damaging the cells’ ability to take in information and function optimally. Or, since the cells are absorbing the light, that irregularities in the biophotons can damage the cells in general. Now, in this example with the sun, photons have a high intensity. However, consider the scenario of a person who looks at a halogen light bulb. Per research, it is considered a safe light. However, if a person were to stare at the halogen light bulb for hours on end, in extreme cases one could damage their eyesight and even go blind, even though the photons from this light are considered safe, non-ionizing radiation. We can see from this example that there can be negative effects in cases of extended, consistent, or semi-consistent exposure. This is the reason that both the intensity as well as the location of the biophotons are key factors to consider which leads to the second factor for this hypothesis: the location of the biophotons in the brain and throughout the body.

 

2.3. How the Mind-Body-Energy Connection Affects the Location of Biophotons that Can Lead to a Specific Illness

As discussed previously, research has shown increased neural activity results in increased biophoton emissions and intensity. I propose that in addition to the increased emissions and energy to biophotons, “stress” (negative emotions) can directly influence the location of the biophoton emissions in the brain, which is an important factor to consider when it comes to illness. I propose that location is a key factor for the following reasons:

  1. Prolonged and consistent or semi-consistent exposure in the same location can create illness. As discussed above, prolonged, and consistent exposure to a normally harmless light can cause damage in only a few hours if there is consistent exposure. I propose that similarly, harmless biophotons can become harmful if they are consistently or semi-consistently being emitted in the same location. Further, I propose that this is a critical factor in the way stress (negative emotions) can affect the physical body. 
  2. Different emotions affect different parts of the brain and body, leading to different illnesses. It is well-known that research has shown that stress can negatively affect the physical body. I propose that it is important to bring the broader statement of “stress” into a more acute awareness and propose that each individual emotion can affect a different part of the body. I propose that this is possible based on research from Carnegie Mellon University in which researchers proved via fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) scans that different emotions generate neural activity in different areas of the brain, i.e., sadness generates neural activity in different locations in the brain than happiness. This has been consistent from one person to another.[13] Based on this awareness, combined with the research on biophotons, I hypothesize that since each individual emotion has been shown to generate increased neural activity, logically, this would also increase biophoton emissions in that location of the brain and the location is the important part.

 

I propose that these two factors are critically important in how stress can break down the physical body and lead to illness. These are the reasons that prolonged, or very intense stress has been linked to illness, while short moments of stress are not typically linked to illness. 

In the case of prolonged stress (with the same emotion and emotional patterns), hypothetically, the specific stress (negative emotion) would generate continuous or semi-continuous neural activity in the same location of the brain. I hypothesize that this ongoing continuous (or semi-continuous) increased neural activity would then result in a corresponding continuous (or semi-continuous) increase in biophoton emissions and intensity of the energy in the same location of the brain. I propose that that is where the problem can arise, due to the continued biophoton emission in the same part of the brain. If we take into account the way the brain is structured (consider the somatosensory cortex), and that different parts of the brain have neural networks that directly connect to corresponding parts of the body, then add the awareness that studies suggest biophotons travel along nerve fibers and in neural circuits, I hypothesize that this is ultimately how “stress” (negative emotion) is able to impact the health of the physical body: that a negative emotion in the brain increases biophotons in the mind due to the neural activity and then either the biophotons are able to travel from the mind, down the connected nerve fiber to the corresponding parts of the body—and/or that the negative emotion can cause “tension” in the area of the body that is connected to the part of the brain where the emotion and biophoton increase occurs, which would then trigger neurons firing throughout the body (from this negative emotion). This would result in increased biophoton emission and intensity that would travel through specific parts of the body that could damage the cells. So, I propose that whether the biophotons were traveling the nerve fiber or more biophotons were being emitted due to nerves firing from the corresponding emotional center of the brain (or a combination of both), that the origination of illness is the negative thought and/or emotion. 

 

2.4. Complete Hypothesis 

In summary, I hypothesize that when a person is experiencing recurring or consistent negative thoughts and emotions, neural activity is increased in a specific location in the brain, which in turn simultaneously creates multiple changes in the biophoton activity, such as an increase in biophoton emissions, frequency, wavelength, and/or intensity in that same specific location in the brain. When this chain reaction is extremely intense and/or is ongoing in the same location of the brain for a duration of time, this continuous or semi-continuous exposure to biophotons in the same area of the brain can affect the cells and nerve fibers around it, as well as the areas of the body that correspond with this part of the brain; and ultimately, this can damage the cells in those areas and result in illness. I do also want to note that if biophoton activity originates from conscious and subconscious thoughts and emotions, and biophoton activity can increase with emotional intensity, then it can also decrease with lack of intensity. With that, I propose that not only can an increase in the intensity of the biophotons can affect a person’s health, but also that lack of intensity of biophotons can also affect the health of the body. I propose that in some cases where a person is not really feeling positive emotions and/or has an extreme disconnect from other people or extreme dis-interest in life, that there are not enough emotions—and in turn not enough biophoton activity—to fuel the cells. This can also affect a person’s health, such as in the cases where death of an infant due to lack of love and affection (aka failure to thrive),[14] or boredom are linked to increased death rates.

  1. Supporting Evidence

Ultimately there are two elements to this hypothesis that require supporting evidence: 

  1. Different emotions affect different parts of the body.
  2. Biophotons are the hidden culprit in this process.

 

3.1. Different Emotions Affect Different Parts of the Body 

While there is an endless amount of supporting scientific data, some of which I have cited below, I do briefly want to use logic as supporting evidence to bring these pieces together. The hypothesis that different thoughts and emotions affect different parts of the body makes logical sense. If we simplify this and look at common knowledge, we can see that if someone is embarrassed, their face blushes (even emojis know this). Or if a person has anxiety, they can have an anxiety/panic attack. Or if a person experiences sexual emotions, they can experience a physical sexual arousal response (obviously it is different between men and women). Based on these well-known examples that have been scientifically proven, we can see that the foundational protocol and structure for the body is that different emotions affect the physical body in different ways. 

Further, as briefly mentioned above, the Carnegie Mellon University study showed that through visual imaging (by using fMRI and machine learning to measure brain signals), emotions can generate activity in multiple locations in the brain simultaneously. It was previously thought that brain activity from emotions was isolated to specific “emotional” regions of the brain. However, following the study with fMRI scans, senior research programmer, Vladimir Cherkassky in the Carnegie Mellon Psychology Department concluded, “This suggests that emotion signatures aren’t limited to specific brain regions, such as the amygdala, but produce characteristic patterns throughout a number of brain regions,”[15]

An additional insight discovered in the Carnegie Mellon study was that the same emotions generated similar activity in the brain, while different emotions generated distinctly different activity. To put it more clearly, when two subjects were both experiencing the emotion of “fear,” their brain scans were similar to one another­­; they were feeling the same emotion, resulting in activity in the same parts of the brain. However, when one subject was experiencing the feeling of “fear” and the other person was experiencing a different feeling, such as “disgust,” their brain scans were distinctly different. Dissimilar emotions generated activity in different parts of the brain.

Further evidence to support this hypothesis—that different emotions affect different parts of the physical body—can be gathered by analyzing the somatosensory cortex itself, which, simply put, receives sensory information from every part of the body. This includes every sensation from touch to pain, to temperature, etc.[16] New research has shown that “the somatosensory cortex also plays an important role in each stage of emotional processing, including identification of emotional significance in a stimulus, generation of emotional states, and regulation of emotion.”[17]

Photo credit: Shutterstock royalty-free stock vector ID: 1216278397. By Vasilisa Tsoy

Photo credit:  https://www.cmu.edu/news/stories/archives/2013/june/june19_identifyingemotions.html

 

If we take the above conclusion that different emotions generate activity in different parts of the brain and combine this with the awareness that the somatosensory cortex does play a role in this emotional processing—and include the fact that stress affects the physical body, we can already see how it would be possible for different emotions (stress) to affect different parts of the body. In addition to that, if we combine this research with the awareness that increased neural activity also increases biophoton emission, we can begin to see the big picture of how that is possible. 

Further, there are countless studies showing that there is a connection between biophotons and illness. There is typically a difference in both biophoton patterns and intensity between people who are healthy and those who suffer from illness. For example, a recent study was able to record a significant difference between healthy patients and type-2 diabetic patients.[18]

Another study found that there was even biophoton activity that reflected tumor growth wherein the researchers transplanted tumors into rats and then monitored the tumor and biophoton activity each week. They found that as the tumor increased in vitality, so too did the biophoton activity. Due to this clear correlation, the researchers from this study suggested that biophotons could potentially be a non-invasive method for monitoring tumors.[19]

From this research we can see that there is a variation in biophoton intensity and frequency in the relevant areas of the body between those who are sick and those who are healthy. It seems that most of the research today is searching for ways to use biophotons to create diagnostic tools or to heal with light therapy, or to analyze and measure the light and its roles throughout the body. However, I think the factor that is being overlooked is the origin of the biophotons and their connection to both conscious and subconscious thoughts and emotions. However, if you consider that negative emotions can activate the nervous system and create tension in various parts of the body by causing neurons to fire in the body, we can see how these emotions can result in increased biophotons throughout the body. 

 

3.2. Biophotons are the Hidden Culprit

The only area in which one may question this hypothesis is in whether biophotons/UPE can cause damage to the cells; however, when we bring the pieces together, that, too, seems evident in a variety of ways. 

First, when it comes to intensity, research has shown that the intensity of the light field is exponentially higher inside the neurons and cells than outside, [20] [21] and that it is higher than UPE—so much so that a recent study specifically states:

We should stress that the real biophoton intensity within cells and neurons can be considerably higher (Bókkon et al., 2010) than one would expect from the measurement of ultraweak bioluminescence, which is generally carried out macroscopically several centimeters away from the tissue or cell culture (Thar and Kühl 2004).

And that:

Estimates indicate that for a measured intensity of the ultraweak bioluminescence (biophotons), the corresponding intensity of the light field within the organism can be up to two orders of magnitude higher (Chwirot 1992, Slawinski 1988).  

  

So, as we can see, the intensity is much higher than one would expect. 

When this is combined with the awareness that each emotion generates neural activity in a specific area or areas of the brain, then if the same emotion were to be experienced repeatedly, then logically, it would generate increased activity in the same area repeatedly. From this it is evident that if a person is experiencing prolonged stress (more specifically the same negative thoughts and emotions for an extended period), or extremely intense stress, we can clearly see how this could be damaging to the cells. 

Further, we know that light and photons, in general, can impact the physical body, so it seems logical that highly charged photons, even if they are made from the human body itself, could also damage human cells.

Additionally, when it comes to biophotons affecting different parts of the body, it is important to note that research has shown that biophotons can only increase in the region of the brain where the neural activity is occurring. For example, in one study,[22] researchers asked participants to visualize light. The biophotons increased only on the right side of the participants’ heads. Therefore, we know that biophoton activity is specific to the location of the neural activity.  

In addition to that, research also suggests that biophotons can travel nerve fibers.[23]  Therefore, one potential way that biophotons could affect the physical body is by traveling from the brain down the nerve fibers to the corresponding part(s) of the body. Or another possibility is that: rather than traveling along the nerve fibers, the biophotons are actually being continuously generated by the neurons of the nerve fibers themselves. It is well known that stress can create tension in the physical body. The presence of tension means neurons are firing to contract a muscle, which again would increase the intensity of biophotons in that specific area of stress.

There is endless data available that can be used to support this hypothesis. Further, it is worth noting that when observing the mind-body connection through the lens of this hypothesis, other previously unexplained anomalies now make logical sense. One example is spontaneous remission, in which an individual could change their way of thinking and feeling, which could be responsible for an instance of sudden healing. Another instance is when someone with DID (Dissociative Identity Disorder) could experience different physical symptoms in different personalities, and how this shifting of symptoms could occur so rapidly. 

 

  1. Evaluation of the Hypothesis/Idea

Although it is generally known that stress affects the physical body, many people take this statement lightly. The idea that stress breaks down physical parts or cells of the body could be considered a radical idea. However, numerous studies indicate that “stress” can lead to the physical breakdown of the brain itself, including atrophy of the brain, loss of mass and a decrease in weight.[24] Some studies have shown that stress also causes structural changes in different parts of the brain. These studies note that the amount of structural change and atrophy is directly connected to the stress level intensity and duration.[25] Additionally, stress has also been shown to have long-term effects on the nervous system.[26] Therefore, if it has been proven that stress can atrophy and create structural changes to the brain, it would seem logical that stress could also create similar structural changes and breakdown of the physical body. 

Additional research has shown that neural excitement and activity in the brain can lead to a shorter lifespan. “An intriguing aspect of our findings is that something as transient as the activity state of neural circuits could have such far-ranging consequences for physiology and life span,”[27] said Harvard study senior author Bruce Yankner, professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School and co-director of the Paul F. Glenn Center for the Biology of Aging.

While emotions may seem benign because we cannot see them, we must consider that when neurons are firing, the intensity correlates directly to the intensity of the biophotons, and that this can change the frequency, wavelength, and intensity of the biophotons—and that we know that the greatest intensity is occurring inside the cells. Further, while biophotons may not seem to have a negative impact, there are known occurrences of photons, in general, affecting the body, including those proven with the use of X-rays and radiation exposure. Both give off an “energy” which has been shown to affect the physical body, generate free radicals, and in some cases, even cause cancer. That is the power of photons, and we need to consider even those biophotons that are created from strong emotions. 

The notion that each emotion is linked to a specific part of the body, and thus a different ailment, is radical for many people. However, even with a basic understanding of simple human emotions, we can see that they each correspond to a different physical response. When we investigate this even more closely, we realize that different ailments have been linked to different life events. For example, certain autoimmune diseases[28] have been linked to a high occurrence of childhood sexual abuse. I propose that this is not about the unfortunate trauma itself, but the emotional pattern that was created by the trauma. 

As mentioned previously, Type 2 diabetes has been linked to loneliness. Both examples highlight a different type of stress and a different ailment. I propose that if we look beyond the physical traumas tied to specific types of stress/emotion, and instead look at the emotional patterns themselves, we will find the origin of illness.

 

  1. How the Idea for this Hypothesis has Evolved

I was personally injured and told that there was nothing my doctors could do for me. Being disabled and in extreme pain, I was willing to try anything to find a solution. I began looking for answers and realized I was not the only one who was struggling with pain; I discovered that worldwide, over 1.5 billion people live with chronic pain. That is when I realized that I needed to look outside of the conventional medical system for solutions. 

I began studying pain, and after learning that amputees still experience pain where their missing limb once was, I began studying the brain as a tool for healing and started researching the placebo. As I did, it seemed to me that common thought was to implement healing with the mind, a person must believe that they are going to be healed—and that the success, or lack thereof, was centered around the person’s belief that they would heal or were already healed. However, as I continued to research, I came across the open-label placebo which has also been proven to achieve results. In studies with the open-label placebo, both the doctor and the patient know that the treatment is only a placebo and still, this has shown healing results.[29]

With that finding, I began to expand my research. I studied everything from NLP to binaural beats, meditation, frequencies—everything I could find. Eventually, I was introduced to Louise Hay’s work in metaphysics, which she built upon Florence Scovel Shinn’s concept that different emotions can affect different parts of the physical body. This caught my attention. 

The general notion that emotions affect the physical body made sense because I could see it in simple logic: as mentioned earlier, when someone is embarrassed, their face blushes and turns red, or when they experience extreme anxiety, they have a panic attack; or when they have a sexual thought, their body responds. It was all evident in small, everyday emotions, so it made sense that our bodies were designed that way. 

While I agreed with some of the Hay and Shinn concepts, I did not fully resonate with all of them. I did, however, recognize that they were part of the growth and development of metaphysics. At that point, I became determined to understand the mind-body connection, and to figure out how and why it worked so I could figure out how to get my body to heal. I spent the next several years researching, using trial and error, until eventually I figured it out in 2009. 

After my complete recovery, I wanted to share this knowledge with others so they could also use it. I began sharing it with those around me who asked. However, the idea of healing with the mind was, for most people, not realistic. That’s when I made it my mission to show people proof of mind-body healing, so they could see that it worked. 

I also set out to write a medical hypothesis to share what I had done to help increase awareness; however, at that time there was simply not enough supporting evidence, so, instead, I set out to prove my theory through results.  

In 2012, I began showing people how to get results with self-healing and even how to relieve their pain within minutes. In 2015, I completed my first study that demonstrated this self-healing under advanced medical thermography. In 2019 I began coordinating my next research study with a university, but the study has been put on hold due to the COVID-19 pandemic; however, I am currently working to obtain additional funding for it and exploring other opportunities to advance this research.

In the meantime, I wanted to share this hypothesis with others to help the advancement of our medical system. Over the years, I have watched the data continue to build and there have been advancements in the study of both biophotons and emotions, such that there is now enough solid research to support my hypothesis. My goal is to share my hypothesis with others so it will provide hope and help provide a benefit to people everywhere to radically change their lives like it did mine. 

 

  1. Empirical/Pilot Data

Gillmore has successfully completed multiple trial research experiments based on the above hypothesis. For each trial experiment, Gillmore worked with several volunteer participants experiencing chronic pain. Gillmore followed a strict protocol (below) and was able to help each participant to use their mind to alleviate physical pain. 

Below are a few examples from a study filmed under live video. Participants of the study were randomly chosen. Each participant was placed under thermography, so the pain and its alleviation were not merely subjective to what the participant was experiencing in their mind; the heat from their pain was also cleared from their physical body. 

 

5.1. The Beginning of the Study 

Each subject entered an examination room and was seated on a stool in front of an FDA-approved thermal camera operated by Dr. Hillary Smith. Also, since many people have a hard time believing that it is possible to heal with the mind, it was video recorded so there was a video camera operator as well as a boom operator present in the room. They recorded the study, beginning to end, so that these results and the entire process were fully recorded and documented.

The subject was properly cooled, in keeping with standard thermography practices completed by Dr. Smith. The thermal camera was set on continual capture which automatically records continuous images from the medical camera at the rate of a new image every second. 

 


Figure x (above): depicts a session with a participant. Dr. Smith monitors the thermal camera equipment while Gillmore identifies the emotional source of the participant’s pain.

 

5.2. Thermography as a Measurement Tool

To test whether the subject was experiencing a physical change with their pain or simply a change with their perception of pain, Gillmore used medical thermography to assist in providing quantitative evidence of the outcome. The thermal medical camera was used to capture several data points: a) a baseline scan prior to any treatment; b) an end result scan to provide visual images of the results of the subjects she worked with in person; and c) images taken every second to monitor any change in the body in either direction.

Thermal imaging, or Medical Thermography, involves the use of a specialized infrared camera to capture different temperatures from the body, displayed in pixels. The American College of Clinical Thermography cites the effectiveness of thermography:

Abnormal body temperature is a natural indicator of illness. Infrared thermography (IRT) is a fast, passive, non-contact, and non-invasive alternative to conventional clinical thermometers for monitoring body temperature. IRT can map body surface temperature remotely.[30]

 

Gillmore chose thermography to demonstrate the study results primarily because it is safe, free of exposure to radiation, and completely non-intrusive. Thermography also provides real-time results, both on screen and through captured images.  

A specialist in a variety of healing modalities including thermography, and the only level III advanced certified Thermography Technician in California, Dr. Hillary Smith provided thermal imaging using the MediTherm Med2000TM, an FDA-registered device that has been designed and manufactured exclusively for medical use.

Continual capture is crucial to this study so that any changes up or down can be noted and so that images are captured at the very moment the subject notes their pain is relieved. Additionally, consistency is key; if the thermography camera must be reset or repositioned, it could create a possible variation in positioning or settings. In using the continual setting, there is no room for any variation in settings, positioning or otherwise.

 

5.3. Summary of the Process 

The researcher, Brandy Gillmore, began the session with the subject who was positioned under advanced medical thermography. The thermography camera was operated by Dr. Hillary Smith. The camera was set to automatically take a new scan in intervals of one second. Once this was set up, the session began. 

During the session, Gillmore began, through talk therapy with the subject, to first identify what she refers to as the specific “primary symptom emotion” (PSE), the specific emotion linked to the physical pain in the body. 

Once the emotion was identified, Gillmore began talking to the participant to help the subject change the specific emotion and create a sense of relief from that emotion. Gillmore, through talk therapy, asked the subject questions and engaged the subject in a visualization activity. Through this process, Gillmore was able to help each participant genuinely change the specific emotion that was identified. As each participant changed their emotional stress, they experienced instant pain relief. 

Throughout the exercises, Gillmore periodically asked each participant their pain level. After the subject rated their level of pain, Gillmore and Smith confirmed that the pain rating matched the thermography scan. For each participant, the location of the pain they described corresponded to the colored red area on the thermography scan. After Gillmore identified the PSE, she spoke with the participant to help them shift the emotion and feel differently. As the participant’s stress decreased, pain also decreased. 

To test this hypothesis further, Gillmore intentionally (and unbeknownst to the subject) had the subject think about things that would recreate/re-trigger the negative emotion to increase. In each case, the participant reported an immediate increase in pain, which also appeared as an immediate increase in heat detected on the thermography scan.

Gillmore repeated this whole process described above until each subject had a zero level of pain. 

Here is a sample of what one of the thermography scans looked like before and after: 

 

Before scan.  Final Scan. Scans taken approx. 16 minutes apart.

 

At the end of the study, the images were used to provide a baseline image and end results for each subject. Although the thermal camera can provide 64,000 different temperatures displayed as pixels, in this study, for ease of interpretation of the scans, the researcher concentrated on the two primary colors displayed on the images: red and green. Red indicates areas of intense heat, which can be indicative of a disharmony in the body such as pain, irritation, or inflammation. The green areas show areas of normal/optimal temperature, which generally indicate areas that are healthy, or without issues. In the “before” picture on the top, we can see that there is a large area of red, showing heat over the neck and shoulder area which is indicative of pain. This corresponds with the same location where the participant reported experiencing pain. As mentioned above, the thermography camera was set on one-second intervals. As Brandy worked with the participant, the scans continued to change from red to green. The scan on the bottom in green shows the last image taken from the interval which was approximately 16 minutes later. 

 

  1. Consequences of the Hypothesis and Further Discussion

Now more than ever, we need a breakthrough in healthcare; a new perspective, a new way of helping people, and a new way of giving hope to so many who have lost hope and are suffering without a cure. Quoting Einstein, “No problem can be solved from the same level of consciousness that created it.” Right now, our medical system needs a new perspective and new consciousness. This hypothesis has the power to provide exactly that and more. It has the ability to enable us to understand illness, the human body, and treatments at a whole new level. 

For example: each of the cutting-edge CAM therapies that are being used has proven data, showing that the therapy can be beneficial to one’s health. However, the reason these therapies have not yet been accepted into the mainstream is there is a lack of the kind of evidence for them that would fit within the old medical model. I propose that this hypothesis can also help explain CAM therapies and provide a medical model for CAM therapies to fit within.

If we look at CAM therapies, many of them are centered around changing the “energy” of the body. I propose that when a CAM therapy is successful in relieving a patient’s pain or ailment, it is ultimately because it is interrupting the “negative energy” in one way or another—meaning that the negative energy is traveling from the brain, due to a negative emotion, through the neural pathways, and into the problem area of the body. However, if that energy is interrupted, then it can create a feeling of relief from the negative energy to allow the body to heal. 

For example, in the case of acupressure/acupuncture, I propose that when these modalities are effective, it is because they have “interrupted” the stream of “negative energy” from the negative emotion in the brain, so the energy is no longer going from the brain to the body—at least for the moment. It is essentially interrupting the negative flow of energy.  

Or, in the case of therapies such as color therapy, talk therapy, meditation, or sound healing, these can help a person to calm the negative emotion itself, which in turn can calm the negative energy that is affecting the physical body.   

Based on this awareness, for long-term healing results, a person would not just need to relax the emotion, but instead they would need to completely rewire their mind to no longer go into the emotional pattern at all.

 

  1. Further Considerations

It has been written throughout history that our minds are powerful. Again, in the Bible it is noted that, “A merry thought is a medicine to the body, ill thoughts will dry the bones.” When we look at the big picture, it seems that this is the piece that we as a culture have been overlooking, the power of our minds and emotions for healing. 

We have also heard throughout history about the power of thought in creating our lives. For some people, the idea that our thoughts create our lives seems “New Age,” yet that idea, too, has been around since Aristotle and the Bible. Also consider Einstein’s famous quote: “Imagination is the preview of life’s coming attraction.” 

Research on biophotons has suggested that these photons carry information throughout our body and communicate with cells. I do agree with that statement and propose that biophotons—which are the direct result of our thoughts and emotions, not only send important information throughout our body, but also send it into the world around us to help create our lives.

Now for some people it may sound impossible that light could transmit information, but to put it in perspective, this is how fiber optics provides internet service around the world. Simply put, photons are sent down glass tubing and these frequencies are decoded on the other side and turned into data. That is how the internet and TV work. 

The ultimate goal of this hypothesis is to help bridge the gap between science and spirituality, help transform the old paradigm into a new one and give people hope who have none. This awareness is what changed my life and has enabled me to help so many others heal from incurable pain and suffering. 

 

  1. Further Testing

The next step in testing this hypothesis would be to create a study on subjects who are experiencing chronic pain. In addition to placing them under thermography, as in the above study, use fMRI like the study at Carnegie Mellon University to identify the emotion in the brain, and a whole-body biophoton detection system to measure the changes in biophotons from the body. 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

[1] The Puzzling Role of Biophotons in the Brain. MIT Technology Review, December 10, 2010. https://www.technologyreview.com/2010/12/17/198375/the-puzzling-role-of-biophotons-in-the-brain/ (accessed 08/05/21).

[2] NCCAM (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine).  Expanding Horizons of Healthcare: Five-Year Strategic Plan 2001-2005. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2000. NIH Publication No. 01-5001.

[3] Hackett RA, Hudson JL, Chilcot J. Loneliness and type 2 diabetes incidence: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Diabetologia 63, 2329–2338 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-020-05258-6

[4] Britton A, Shipley MJ, Bored to death?, International Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 39, Issue 2, April 2010, Pages 370–371, https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyp404

[5] Farrell DJ, Bower L. Fatal water intoxication. J Clin Pathol. 2003;56(10):803-804. doi:10.1136/jcp.56.10.803-a. 

[6] Sanders CL. Speculations about Bystander and Biophotons. Dose Response. 2014;12(4):515-517. Published 2014 May 19. doi: 10.2203/dose-response.14-002.Sanders.

[7] Kobayashi M, Takeda M, Sato T, Yamazaki Y, Kaneko K, Ito K, Kato H, Inaba H, In vivo imaging of spontaneous ultraweak photon emission from a rat’s brain correlated with cerebral energy metabolism and oxidative stress, Neurosci Res 34:103–113, 1999.

[8] Bókkon I, Salari V, Tuszynski J, Antal I, Estimation of the number of biophotons involved in the visual perception of a single object image: Biophoton intensity can be considerably higher inside cells than outside. J Photochem Photobiol B 100:160–166, 2010.

[9] Van Wijk R, Van Wijk EP, Wiegant FA, Ives J. Free radicals and low-level photon emission in human pathogenesis: state of the art. Indian J Exp Biol. 2008 May;46(5):273-309. PMID: 18697612.

[10] Sun Y, Wang C, Dai J. Biophotons as neural communication signals demonstrated by in situ biophoton autography. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2010 Mar;9(3):315-22. doi: 10.1039/b9pp00125e. Epub 2010 Jan 21. PMID: 20221457.

[11] Phaniendra A, Jestadi DB, Periyasamy L. Free radicals: properties, sources, targets, and their implication in various diseases. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2015 Jan;30(1):11-26. doi: 10.1007/s12291-014-0446-0. Epub 2014 Jul 15.

[12] Uzunbajakava, Natallia. (2016). Human Skin and Hair Can See Light: Unravelling Expression of Photoreceptors Towards Improved Light Therapies for Hair and Skin Disorders. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301324809 

[13] Kassam KS, Markey AR, Cherkassky VL, Loewenstein G, Just MA. Identifying Emotions on the Basis of Neural Activation. PLoS One. 2013 Jun 19;8(6): e66032. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066032. PMID: 23840392; PMCID: PMC3686858.

[14] Rowold K. What Do Babies Need to Thrive? Changing Interpretations of ‘Hospitalism' in an International Context, 1900-1945. Soc Hist Med. 2019;32(4):799-818. doi:10.1093/shm/hkx114

[15] Kassam KS, Markey AR, Cherkassky VL, Loewenstein G, Just MA. Identifying Emotions.

[16] Raju H, Tadi P. Neuroanatomy, Somatosensory Cortex. [Updated 2020 Nov 19]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK555915/.

[17] Kropf E, Syan SK, Minuzzi L, Frey BN. From anatomy to function: the role of the somatosensory cortex in emotional regulation. Braz J Psychiatry. 2019;41(3):261-269. doi:10.1590/1516-4446-2018-0183.

[18] Yang M, Ding W, Liu Y, Fan H, Bajpai RP, Fu J, Pang J, Zhao X, Han J. Ultra-weak photon emission in healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes: evidence for a non-invasive diagnostic tool. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2017 May 17;16(5):736-743. doi: 10.1039/c6pp00431h. PMID: 28294270.

[19] Takeda M, Kobayashi M, Takayama M, Suzuki S, Ishida T, Ohnuki K, Moriya T, Ohuchi N. Biophoton detection as a novel technique for cancer imaging. Cancer Sci. 2004 Aug;95(8):656-61. doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2004.tb03325.x. PMID: 15298728.

[20] Chwirot BW, Ultraweak luminescence studies of microsporogenesis in Larch, pp. 259–285, in Popp FA, Li KH, Gu Q (eds.), Recent advances in biophoton research and its applications, World Scientific, Singapore, River Edge, NJ, 1992.

[21] Slawinski J, Luminescence research and its relation to ultraweak cell radiation, Experientia 44:559–571, 1988.

[22] Dotta BT, Saroka KS, Persinger MA. Increased photon emission from the head while imagining light in the dark is correlated with changes in electroencephalographic power: support for Bókkon's biophoton hypothesis. Neurosci Lett. 2012 Apr 4;513(2):151-4. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2012.02.021. Epub 2012 Feb 17. PMID: 22343311.

[23] Rendong T, Jiapei D. Biophoton signal transmission and processing in the brain, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 139, 2014, Pages 71-75, ISSN 1011-1344, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2013.12.008.

[24] Osanloo N, Sarahian N, Zardooz H, Sahraei H, Sahraei M, Sadeghi B. Effects of Memantine, an NMDA Antagonist, on Metabolic Syndromes in Female NMRI Mice. Basic Clin Neurosci. 2015 Oct;6(4):239-52. PMID: 26649162; PMCID: PMC4668871.

[25] Lupien SJ, McEwen BS, Gunnar MR, Heim C. Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2009 Jun;10(6):434-45. doi: 10.1038/nrn2639. Epub 2009 Apr 29. PMID: 19401723.

[26] Yaribeygi H, Panahi Y, Sahraei H, Johnston TP, Sahebkar A. The impact of stress on body function: A review. EXCLI J. 2017; 16:1057-1072. Published 2017 Jul 21. doi:10.17179/excli2017-480.

[27] Dutcheon S. New Player in Human Aging Neural activity emerges as a factor in longevity. Harvard News, 10/16/19. https://hms.harvard.edu/news/new-player-human-aging (accessed 08/01/21).

[28] Dube SR, Fairweather D, Pearson WS, Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Croft JB. Cumulative childhood stress and autoimmune diseases in adults. Psychosom Med. 2009;71(2):243-250. doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181907888.

[29] Ballou, S., Kaptchuk, T.J., Hirsch, W. et al. Open-label versus double-blind placebo treatment in irritable bowel syndrome: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 18, 234 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-017-1964-x.

[30] Lahiri BB, Bagavathiappan S, Jayakumar T, Philip J. Medical applications of infrared thermography: A review. Infrared Phys Technol. 2012;55(4):221-235. doi:10.1016/j.infrared.2012.03.007. 

 

 

[1] The Puzzling Role of Biophotons in the Brain. MIT Technology Review, December 10, 2010. https://www.technologyreview.com/2010/12/17/198375/the-puzzling-role-of-biophotons-in-the-brain/.

[2] NCCAM (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine).  Expanding Horizons of Healthcare: Five-Year Strategic Plan 2001-2005. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2000. NIH Publication No. 01-5001.

 

[3] Hackett RA, Hudson JL, Chilcot J. Loneliness and type 2 diabetes incidence: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Diabetologia 63, 2329–2338 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-020-05258-6.

[4] Britton A, Shipley MJ, Bored to death?, International Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 39, Issue 2, April 2010, Pages 370–371, https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyp404.

[5] Farrell DJ, Bower L. Fatal water intoxication. J Clin Pathol. 2003;56(10):803-804. doi:10.1136/jcp.56.10.803-a. 

[6] Sanders CL. Speculations about Bystander and Biophotons. Dose Response. 2014;12(4):515-517. Published 2014 May 19. doi: 10.2203/dose-response.14-002.Sanders.

[7] Kobayashi M, Takeda M, Sato T, Yamazaki Y, Kaneko K, Ito K, Kato H, Inaba H, In vivo imaging of spontaneous ultraweak photon emission from a rat’s brain correlated with cerebral energy metabolism and oxidative stress, Neurosci Res 34:103–113, 1999.

[8] Bókkon I, Salari V, Tuszynski J, Antal I, Estimation of the number of biophotons involved in the visual perception of a single object image: Biophoton intensity can be considerably higher inside cells than outside. J Photochem Photobiol B 100:160–166, 2010.

[9] Van Wijk R, Van Wijk EP, Wiegant FA, Ives J. Free radicals and low-level photon emission in human pathogenesis: state of the art. Indian J Exp Biol. 2008 May;46(5):273-309. PMID: 18697612.

[10] Sun Y, Wang C, Dai J. Biophotons as neural communication signals demonstrated by in situ biophoton autography. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2010 Mar;9(3):315-22. doi: 10.1039/b9pp00125e. Epub 2010 Jan 21. PMID: 20221457.

[11] Phaniendra A, Jestadi DB, Periyasamy L. Free radicals: properties, sources, targets, and their implication in various diseases. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2015 Jan;30(1):11-26. doi: 10.1007/s12291-014-0446-0. Epub 2014 Jul 15.

[12] Uzunbajakava, Natallia. (2016). Human Skin and Hair Can See Light: Unravelling Expression of Photoreceptors Towards Improved Light Therapies for Hair and Skin Disorders. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301324809 

[13] Kassam KS, Markey AR, Cherkassky VL, Loewenstein G, Just MA. Identifying Emotions on the Basis of Neural Activation. PLoS One. 2013 Jun 19;8(6): e66032. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066032. PMID: 23840392; PMCID: PMC3686858.

 

[14] Rowold K. What Do Babies Need to Thrive? Changing Interpretations of ‘Hospitalism' in an International Context, 1900-1945. Soc Hist Med. 2019;32(4):799-818. doi:10.1093/shm/hkx114

 

[15] Kassam KS, Markey AR, Cherkassky VL, Loewenstein G, Just MA. “Identifying Emotions”.

[16] Raju H, Tadi P. Neuroanatomy, Somatosensory Cortex. [Updated 2020 Nov 19]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK555915/.

[17] Kropf E, Syan SK, Minuzzi L, Frey BN. From anatomy to function: the role of the somatosensory cortex in emotional regulation. Braz J Psychiatry. 2019;41(3):261-269. doi:10.1590/1516-4446-2018-0183.

[18] Yang M, Ding W, Liu Y, Fan H, Bajpai RP, Fu J, Pang J, Zhao X, Han J. Ultra-weak photon emission in healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes: evidence for a non-invasive diagnostic tool. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2017 May 17;16(5):736-743. doi: 10.1039/c6pp00431h. PMID: 28294270.

[19] Takeda M, Kobayashi M, Takayama M, Suzuki S, Ishida T, Ohnuki K, Moriya T, Ohuchi N. Biophoton detection as a novel technique for cancer imaging. Cancer Sci. 2004 Aug;95(8):656-61. doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2004.tb03325.x. PMID: 15298728.

[20] Chwirot BW, Ultraweak luminescence studies of microsporogenesis in Larch, pp. 259–285, in Popp FA, Li KH, Gu Q (eds.), Recent advances in biophoton research and its applications, World Scientific, Singapore, River Edge, NJ, 1992.

[21] Slawinski J, Luminescence research and its relation to ultraweak cell radiation, Experientia 44:559–571, 1988.

[22] Dotta BT, Saroka KS, Persinger MA. Increased photon emission from the head while imagining light in the dark is correlated with changes in electroencephalographic power: support for Bókkon's biophoton hypothesis. Neurosci Lett. 2012 Apr 4;513(2):151-4. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2012.02.021. Epub 2012 Feb 17. PMID: 22343311.

[23] Rendong T, Jiapei D. Biophoton signal transmission and processing in the brain, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 139, 2014, Pages 71-75, ISSN 1011-1344, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2013.12.008.

 

[24] Osanloo N, Sarahian N, Zardooz H, Sahraei H, Sahraei M, Sadeghi B. Effects of Memantine, an NMDA Antagonist, on Metabolic Syndromes in Female NMRI Mice. Basic Clin Neurosci. 2015 Oct;6(4):239-52. PMID: 26649162; PMCID: PMC4668871.

[25] Lupien SJ, McEwen BS, Gunnar MR, Heim C. Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2009 Jun;10(6):434-45. doi: 10.1038/nrn2639. Epub 2009 Apr 29. PMID: 19401723.

 

[26] Yaribeygi H, Panahi Y, Sahraei H, Johnston TP, Sahebkar A. The impact of stress on body function: A review. EXCLI J. 2017; 16:1057-1072. Published 2017 Jul 21. doi:10.17179/excli2017-480.

[27] Dutcheon S. New Player in Human Aging Neural activity emerges as a factor in longevity. Harvard News, 10/16/19. https://hms.harvard.edu/news/new-player-human-aging (accessed 08/01/21).

[28] Dube SR, Fairweather D, Pearson WS, Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Croft JB. Cumulative childhood stress and autoimmune diseases in adults. Psychosom Med. 2009;71(2):243-250. doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181907888.

[29] Ballou, S., Kaptchuk, T.J., Hirsch, W. et al. Open-label versus double-blind placebo treatment in irritable bowel syndrome: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 18, 234 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-017-1964-x

[30] Ballou, S., Kaptchuk, T.J., Hirsch, W. et al. Open-label versus double-blind placebo treatment in irritable bowel syndrome: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 18, 234 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-017-1964-x.